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Psychedelics & Pain Database

Autoimmune & Inflammation Database

Psychedelics & Pain Database

Research since the 1930’s into the analgesic effects of psychedelics has shown potential across a wide range of compounds and conditions. Through several proposed mechanisms of actions, from neurological to psychological, psychedelic medicines have been shown to have powerful pain reducing effects across a wide variety of conditions. Data continues to mount in research trials across the globe. Search the database below for pain conditions and keep scrolling for the Autoimmune and Inflammation database.

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Year Title Compound Condition Journal Author
1930 Effect of Mescaline on Phantom Limbs: Contribution to the Neurophysiological Consideration of Perception & Imagination Mescaline Phantom-limb syndrome Monthly Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology Julius Zádor
1962 Effect of LSD25 on the phantom limb; the problem of body scheme and the therapeutic use of LSD25 on phantom pain. LSD Phantom-limb syndrome Japanese Psychiatry & Neurology Kuromaru, S., Okada, S., Hanada, M., Kasahara, Y. and Sakamoto, K.
1963 Prophylactic treatment of migraine by means of lysergic acid derivatives. Triangle LSD Migraine Triangle Sicuteri, F
1964 Study of lysergic acid diethylamide as an analgesic agent LSD cancer pain, terminal cancer pain, dry gangrene, shingles Anesthesia & Analgesia Kast, E.C. and Collins, V.J.
1967 The effect of LSD on the phantom limb phenomenon LSD Phantom-limb syndrome J-Lancet Kuromaru, S.,Okada, S., Hanada, M., Kasahara, Y., and Sakamoto, K.
1967 Attenuation of anticipation: a therapeutic use of lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD cancer pain Psychiatric Quarterly Kast, E.
1973 LSD-assisted psychotherapy in patients with terminal cancer. LSD Cancer International pharmacopsychiatry Grof, S., Goodman, L.E., Richards, W.A. and Kurland, A.A.
1974 Hypersensitivity to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and psilocybin in essential headache. LSD Headache Experientia Fanciullacci, M., Franchi, G. and Sicuteri, F.
1975 Facilitation of the Venoconstrictive Action of 5-hydroxytriptamine from Ergotamine, Methysergide & LSD-25 in Humans Ergotamine; Methysergide; LSD-25 Headache Bulletin of the Italian Society of Experimental Biology Fanciullacci, M.
1977 Phantom limb pain: Sub‐hallucinogenic treatment with Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD‐25) LSD Phantom-limb syndrome, phantom-limb pain Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain Fanciullacci, M., Bene, E.D., Franchi, G. and Sicuteri, F.
1985 LSD in the supportive care of the terminally ill cancer patient. LSD cancer pain, terminal cancer Journal of psychoactive drugs Kurland, A.A.
1994 Dose-response study of N, N-dimethyltryptamine in humans: II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. DMT Archives of general psychiatry Strassman, R.J., Qualls, C.R., Uhlenhuth, E.H. and Kellner, R.
2006 Response of cluster headache to psilocybin and LSD. Psilocybin; LSD Cluster Headache Neurology Sewell, R.A., Halpern, J.H. and Pope, H.G.
2009 Outpatient intravenous ketamine for the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome: a double-blind placebo controlled study. Ketamine Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, CRPS PAIN® Schwartzman, R.J., Alexander, G.M., Grothusen, J.R., Paylor, T., Reichenberger, E. and Perreault
2010 The non-hallucinogen 2-bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide as preventative treatment for cluster headache: an open, non-randomized case series. 2-bromo LSD Cluster Headache Cephalalgia Karst, M., Halpern, J.H., Bernateck, M. and Passie, T.
2011 The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: possible mechanisms. ketamine Complex regional pain Syndrome, CRPS Expert review of neurotherapeutics Schwartzman, R.J., Alexander, G.M. and Grothusen, J.R.
2015 Indoleamine hallucinogens in cluster headache: results of the clusterbusters medication use survey. hallucinogens; lysergic acid amide; lysergic acid diethylamide; psilocybin, LSD Cluster Headache, headache Journal of psychoactive drugs Schindler, E.A., Gottschalk, C.H., Weil, M.J., Shapiro, R.E., Wright, D.A. and Sewell, R.A.
2015 LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects. LSD Anxiety, life-threatening disease Journal of psychopharmacology Gasser, P., Kirchner, K. and Passie, T.
2018 Relief from intractable phantom pain by combining psilocybin and mirror visual-feedback (MVF). Psilocybin Phantom limb pain Neurocase Ramachandran, V., Chunharas, C., Marcus, Z., Furnish, T. and Lin, A.
2018 Lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin for the management of patients with persistent pain: a potential role? LSD; psilocybin Chronic pain, persistent pain, pain Pain management Whelan, A. and Johnson, M.I.
2019 Psychedelics: Overlooked clinical tools with unexplored ergogenic potential. psychedelics Pain Journal of Exercise and Nutrition Machek, S.B.
2020 Chronic pain and psychedelics: a review and proposed mechanism of action. classic psychedelics; LSD; psilocybin chronic pain central pain syndromes, fibromyalgia, neuropathic pain Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine Castellanos, J.P., Woolley, C., Bruno, K.A., Zeidan, F., Halberstadt, A. and Furnish, T.
2020 Optimizing the treatment of CRPS with ketamine. Ketamine CRPS, complex regional pain syndrome The Clinical Journal of Pain Kirkpatrick, A.F., Saghafi, A., Yang, K., Qiu, P., Alexander, J., Bavry, E. and Schwartzman, R.
2020 LSD overdoses: three case reports. LSD Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs Haden, M. and Woods, B.
2020 Low Dose Ketamine Infusion for Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Chronic Pain: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial Ketamine Chronic Pain Chronic Stress Dadabayev AR, Joshi SA, Reda MH, Lake T, Hausman MS, Domino E, Liberzon I.
2021 A low dose of lysergic acid diethylamide decreases pain perception in healthy volunteers. LSD Pain Journal of Psychopharmacology Ramaekers, J.G., Hutten, N., Mason, N.L., Dolder, P., Theunissen, E.L., Holze, F., Liechti, M.E., Feilding, A. and Kuypers, K.P.
2021 Self-medication for chronic pain using classic psychedelics: a qualitative investigation to inform future research. classic psychedelics; LSD; psilocybin Pain, chronic pain Frontiers in Psychiatry Bornemann, J., Close, J.B., Spriggs, M.J., Carhart-Harris, R. and Roseman, L.
2021 Anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of bufotenine through inhibiting lipid metabolism pathway. bufotenine inflammatory response Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy Wang, J., Xu, D., Shen, L., Zhou, J., Lv, X., Ma, H., Li, N., Wu, Q. and Duan, J.
2021 Chronic pain and psychedelics: proceeding with caution. psychedelics Chronic pain Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Mukhdomi, T. and Mukhdomi, J.
2022 Analgesic potential of macrodoses and microdoses of classical psychedelics in chronic pain sufferers: a population survey. classic psychedelics; LSD; psilocybin Chronic pain British Journal of Pain Bonnelle, V., Smith, W.J., Mason, N.L., Cavarra, M., Kryskow, P., Kuypers, K.P., Ramaekers, J.G. and Feilding, A.
2022 Microdosing psilocybin for chronic pain: a case series. psilocybin Chronic pain Pain Lyes, M., Yang, K.H., Castellanos, J. and Furnish, T.
2022 MDMA-assisted therapy is associated with a reduction in chronic pain among people with post-traumatic stress disorder. MDMA Chronic pain Frontiers in Psychiatry Christie, D., Klosinski, B., Nosova, E., Kryskow, P., Siu, W., Lessor, D. and Argento, E.
2022 Psychedelics as preventive treatment in headache and chronic pain disorders. LSD, psilocybin Headache, chronic pain Neuropharmacology Schindler, E.A.
2022 Psychedelics in the Treatment of Headache and Chronic Pain Disorders. LSD, psilocybin Headache, chronic pain Disruptive Psychopharmacology Schindler, E.A.
2022 Knowledge, perceptions, and use of psychedelics among individuals with fibromyalgia. LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics, classic pyschedelics Fibromyalgia Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Glynos, N.G., Pierce, J., Davis, A.K., McAfee, J. and Boehnke, K.F.
2022 Beating pain with psychedelics: Matter over mind? Ketamine; psilocybin Chronic pain, inflammation Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Elman, I., Pustilnik, A. and Borsook, D.
2022 If the doors of perception were cleansed, would chronic pain be relieved? Evaluating the benefits and risks of psychedelics. LSD, psilocybin Chronic pain The Journal of Pain Dworkin, R.H., Anderson, B.T., Andrews, N., Edwards, R.R., Grob, C.S., Ross, S., Satterthwaite, T.D. and Strain, E.C.
2022 Psychedelics: their limited understanding and future in the treatment of chronic pain. DMT; Etryptamine; DET; Psilocin; psilocybin; Mescaline; amphetamine; methamphetamine; MDMA); LSD; 1P-LSD; ALD-52 Chronic pain Cureus Hedau, V.N., Anjankar, A.P. and Anjankar, A.
2022 Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy to treat psychiatric and existential distress in life-threatening medical illnesses and palliative care. classic psychedelics; LSD; psilocybin Palliative care; terminal illness Neuropharmacology S. Ross, M. Agrawal, R.R. Griffiths, C. Grob, A. Berger, J.E. Henningfield
2022 Psychedelic drugs and pain. LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics, DMT, MDMA. ketamine, ayahuasca, Chronic pain; pain Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine Rekatsina, M., Moka, E., Vadalouca, A. and Varrassi, G.
2022 The therapeutic potential of psychedelic-assisted therapies for symptom control in patients diagnosed with serious illness: a systematic review. psychedelics, LSD, psilocybin, N,N-dipropyltryptamine serious illness, palliative care Journal of Pain and Symptom Management Maia, L.O., Beaussant, Y. and Garcia, A.C.M.
2022 The emerging science of microdosing: A systematic review of research on low dose psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, low dose, microdose Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Polito, V. and Liknaitzky, P.
2022 Ketamine psychedelic and antinociceptive effects are connected. Ketamine pain, antinociception Anesthesiology Olofsen, E., Kamp, J., Henthorn, T.K., van Velzen, M., Niesters, M., Sarton, E. and Dahan, A.
2022 Novel Research Approaches for Psychedelics and Pain Disorders. LSD; psilocybin; mescaline; DMT; psychedelics chronic pain N/A Grahl, A.
2022 Psychedelic Medicine: A Rapid Review of Therapeutic Applications and Implications for Future Research LSD; psilocybin; mescaline; DMT; psychedelics Headache, chronic pain Homewood Research Institute Rush, B., Marcus, O., Shore, R., Cunningham, L., Thompson, N., & Rideout, K.
2023 Assessment of Psilocybin Therapy for Patients With Cancer and Major Depression Disorder psilocybin cancer, major depressive disorder, MDD, depression JAMA oncology Agrawal, M., Emanuel, E., Richards, B., Richards, W., Roddy, K. and Thambi, P.
2023 Effect Of Hallucinogenic And Non-Hallucinogenic Psychedelic Analogs On Chronic Neuropathic Pain In Mice. DM506, psilocybin, DOI neuropathic pain The Journal of Pain Koseli, E., Buzzi, B., Choi, E., Honaker, T., González-Maeso, J., Youkin, J., Manetti, D., Romanelli, M.N., Arias, H.R. and Damaj, M.I.
2023 Are psychedelic medicines the reset for chronic pain? Preliminary findings and research needs. LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics chronic pain Neuropharmacology Zia, F.Z., Baumann, M.H., Belouin, S.J., Dworkin, R.H., Ghauri, M.H., Hendricks, P.S., Henningfield, J.E., Lanier, R.K., Ross, S. and Berger, A.
2023 A Retrospective Study to Determine the Impact of Psychedelic Therapy for Dimensional Measures of Wellness: A Quantitative Analysis LSD; psilocybin; mescaline; DMT; MDMA; ibogaine; psychedelics Headache, chronic pain Canadian Military Pain & Rehab Journal Victoria Di Virgilio1, Amir Minerbi2,3, Jagpaul Kaur Deol4, Salena Aggerwal5, Toufik Safi6, Gaurav Gupta
2023 Are psychedelics the answer to chronic pain: a review of current literature. LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics chronic pain Pain Practice Kooijman, N.I., Willegers, T., Reuser, A., Mulleners, W.M., Kramers, C., Vissers, K.C. and van der Wal, S.E.
2023 Potential analgesic effects of psychedelics on select chronic pain conditions: A survey study. LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics chronic pain European Journal of Pain. Cavarra, M., Mason, N.L., Kuypers, K.P., Bonnelle, V., Smith, W.J., Feilding, A., Kryskow, P. and Ramaekers, J.G.
2023 Intravenous psilocybin administration attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of chronic pain. psilocybin, intravenous psilocybin chronic pain bioRxiv Kolbman, N., Liu, T., Guzzo, P., Gilligan, J.P., Mashour, G.A., Vanini, G. and Pal, D.
2023 Adapting psychedelic medicine for headache and chronic pain disorders LSD, psilocybin, psychedelics Headache, chronic pain Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics Schindler, E.A. and Hendricks, P.S.
2023 LSD and psilocybin for chronic nociplastic pain: A narrative review of the literature supporting the use of classic psychedelic agents in chronic pain LSD, psilocybin chronic pain, nociplastic pain SAMJ Research J J N van der Walt, MB ChB, FCA (SA); R Parker,MSc (Pain), PhD
2023 Persons With Spinal Cord Injury Report Peripherally Dominant Serotonin-Like Syndrome After Use of Serotonergic Psychedelics psychedelics SCI, spinal cord injury Neurotrauma Reports Stephanie Karzon Abrams, Brenden Samuel Rabinovitch, Rayyan Zafar, Aly Shah Aziz, Nicholas Paul Cherup, David W. McMillan, Jessica L. Nielson, Evan Cole Lewis
Year Title Compound Condition Journal Author

Psychedelics, Inflammation, & Autoimmune Database

Year Title Compound Condition Journal Author
2013 Serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation blocks TNF-α mediated inflammation in vivo. (R)-DOI Inflammation PloS one Nau Jr, F., Yu, B., Martin, D. and Nichols, C.D.
2015 Psychedelics and immunomodulation: novel approaches and therapeutic opportunities. Classic psychedelics, DMT, LSD, MDMA Immunomodulation Frontiers in immunology Szabo, A.
2017 Psychedelics as medicines: an emerging new paradigm. Serotonergic psychedelics, Classic psychedelics, 5-HT2A receptor agonists. psilocybin, LSD Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics Nichols, D.E., Johnson, M.W. and Nichols, C.D.
2017 Psychedelic drugs in biomedicine. Classic psychedelics, LSD, psilocybin Trends in pharmacological sciences Kyzar, E.J., Nichols, C.D., Gainetdinov, R.R., Nichols, D.E. and Kalueff, A.V.
2018 Psychedelics as anti-inflammatory agents. (R)-DOI, 5-HT2A agonists, Classic psychedelics Inflammation International Review of Psychiatry Flanagan, T.W. and Nichols, C.D.
2018 The effects of hallucinogens on gene expression. Serotonergic psychedelics, Classic psychedelics, 5-HT2A receptor agonists. psilocybin, LSD Gene expression Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs Martin, D.A. and Nichols, C.D.
2019 Effects of psychedelics on inflammation and immunity. LSD, psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, classic psychedelics, cannabidiol, DMT Inflammation, Immunity Advances in psychedelic medicine: state-of-the-art therapeutic applications Szabo, A.
2019 5-HT2 receptor activation alleviates airway inflammation and structural remodeling in a chronic mouse asthma model. (R)-DOI Airway inflammation, Asthma Life Sciences Flanagan, T.W., Sebastian, M.N., Battaglia, D.M., Foster, T.P., Cormier, S.A. and Nichols, C.D.
2019 Activation of 5-HT2 receptors reduces inflammation in vascular tissue and cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice. (R)-DOI Inflammation, vascular, cholesterol Scientific Reports Flanagan, T.W., Sebastian, M.N., Battaglia, D.M., Foster, T.P., Maillet, E.L. and Nichols, C.D.
2019 Microdosing psychedelics: More questions than answers? An overview and suggestions for future research. Microdose, Microdosing, Classic psychedelics Journal of Psychopharmacology Kuypers, K.P., Ng, L., Erritzoe, D., Knudsen, G.M., Nichols, C.D., Nichols, D.E., Pani, L., Soula, A. and Nutt, D.
2020 Structure–activity relationship analysis of psychedelics in a rat model of asthma reveals the anti-inflammatory pharmacophore. 2C-H ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science Flanagan, T.W., Billac, G.B., Landry, A.N., Sebastian, M.N., Cormier, S.A. and Nichols, C.D.
2020 5‐HT2 Receptor Activation Differentially Modulates Linker Histone Kinetics and Histone Deacetylase Activity. (R)-DOI, psilocin Linker Histone Kinetics, Histone Deacetylase Activity The FASEB Journal Flanagan, T.W., Billac, G.B. and Nichols, C.D.
2020 Psychedelics as a novel approach to treating autoimmune conditions. Classic psychedelics Immunology Letters Thompson, C. and Szabo, A.
2021 The DMT and psilocin treatment changes CD11b+ activated microglia immunological phenotype. DMT, psilocin BioRXiv Kozłowska, U., Klimczak, A., Wiatr, K. and Figiel, M.
2021 Associations between lifetime classic psychedelic use and cardiometabolic diseases. Classic psychedelics Cardiometabolic Disease Scientific Reports Simonsson, O., Osika, W., Carhart-Harris, R. and Hendricks, P.S.
2021 Pharmahuasca Reduces ROS Production and inflammatory Gene Expression in the Brain in a Model of PTSD: Exploration by RNA Sequencing. Pharmahuasca Gene expression ACS Chemical Neuroscience Kelley, D.P., Venable, K., Billac, G., Destouni, A., Ebenezer, P., Stadler, K., Nichols, C., Barker, S. and Francis, J.
2022 Psilocybin induces acute and persisting alterations in immune status and the stress response in healthy volunteers. Psilocybin Immune status, stress response medRxiv Mason, N.L., Szabo, A., Kuypers, K.P., Mallaroni, P.A., de la Torre, R., Reckweg, J.T., Tse, D.H., Hutten, N.R., Feilding, A. and Ramaekers, J.G.
2022 From psychiatry to neurology: Psychedelics as prospective therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Classic psychedelics, psychedelics Neurodegenerative disorders Journal of Neurochemistry Kozlowska, U., Nichols, C., Wiatr, K. and Figiel, M.
2022 Differential Regulation of Inflammatory Responses Following 5‐HT2 Receptor Activation in Pulmonary Tissues. (R)-DOI Inflammation The FASEB Journal, 36. Flanagan, T.W., Billac, G. and Nichols, C.D.
2022 Psychedelics as potent anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Classic psychedelics, psychedelics Inflammation Neuropharmacology Nichols, C.D.
2022 Psychedelics and anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. (R)-DOI, psilocybin Inflammation In Disruptive Psychopharmacology Flanagan, T.W. and Nichols, C.D.
2023 Preclinical perspectives on the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic actions of psilocybin in psychiatric disorders. Psilocybin Neuropharmacology Wulff, A.B., Nichols, C.D. and Thompson, S.M.
2023 Subacute effects of a single dose of psilocybin on biomarkers of inflammation in healthy humans: An open-label preliminary investigation. Psilocybin Comprehensive Psychoneuroendocrinology Burmester, D.R., Madsen, M.K., Szabo, A., Aripaka, S.S., Stenbæk, D.S., Frokjaer, V.G., Elfving, B., Mikkelsen, J.D., Knudsen, G.M. and Fisher, P.M.
Year Title Compound Condition Journal Author